Trustworthiness is increased if the results are presented in a way that allows the reader to look for alternative interpretations (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004). A simplified result may be obtained if the researcher is unable to use and report the results correctly. Interview tapes, videos, and transcribed text should be examined carefully to critically assess the researcher’s own actions For instance, questions should be asked such as “Did I manipulate or lead the participant?” and “Did I ask too broad or structured questions?” Such evaluation should not only begin at the start of the study but also be supported by continuous reflection to ensure the trustworthiness of content analysis. Trustworthiness is often described as the equivalent of reliability and validity within the naturalistic research arena (Lincoln & Guba, 1986). From the perspective of establishing credibility, researchers must ensure that those participating in research are identified and described accurately. These criteria include credibility, dependability, confirmability, and transferability; they later added authenticity (Guba & Lincoln, 1994). ), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. Naturalistic Inquiry. (, Moretti, F., van Vliet, L., Bensing, J., Deledda, G., Mazzi, M., Rimondini, M., . Nurses in an Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak: Facing and Prepar... Bariatric Biosociality: Pushed Together, Pulled Apart, Burla, L., Knierim, B., Barth, K. L., Duetz, M., Abel, T. (, de Casterlé, B. D., Gastmans, C., Bryon, E., Denier, Y. Whereas many standardized procedures are available for performing quantitative content analysis (Baxter, 2009), this is not the case for qualitative content analysis. For quantitative researchers, the methods used to establish trustworthiness include internal validity, external validity, reliability, and objectivity. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness is a criterion for achieving quality in a qualitative study by reducing biases Our suggestion is that one researcher is responsible for the analysis and others carefully follow-up on the whole analysis process and categorization. Based on our research, the sampling method is rarely mentioned in qualitative content analysis studies (Kyngäs et. What I did in ensuring Describing the concepts and how they have been created can often be challenging, which may hinder a complete analysis, particularly if the researcher has not abstracted the data, or too many different types of items have been grouped together (Dey, 1993; Hickey & Kipping, 1996). Although not without critics, the criteria often viewed as the “gold standard” for qualitative research are those outlined by Lincoln and Guba (1985). Lincoln and Guba's Evaluative Criteria Lincoln and Guba posit that trustworthiness of a research study is important to evaluating its worth. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. research findings are worthy of attention (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). (Lincoln’s name may be familiar to you from the Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research which she co-edited with Norman Denzin.) Strategies for achieving trustwo … This is especially important when using inductive content analysis as categories are created from the raw data without a theory-based categorization matrix. Denzin and Lincoln (2000) claim that qualitative research involves an interpretive and naturalistic approach: “This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them” (p. 3). 1, pp. Dependability … It is critical to understand rigor in research. The researcher needs to determine which type of purposeful sampling would be best to use (Creswell, 2013), and a brief description of the sampling method should be provided. The success of data collection should be assessed in relation to the specific research questions and study aim. It is also valuable to give clear descriptions of the culture, context, selection, and characteristics of participants. In the inductive approach, the organization phase includes open coding, creating categories, and abstraction (Elo & Kyngäs, 2008). According to Schreier (2012), there is no clear dividing line between qualitative and quantitative content analysis, and similar terms and criteria for reliability and validity are often used. Although it may seem attractive to return the results to the original participants for verification, it is not an established verification strategy. For example, each main concept should be linked to the data by a quotation. Researchers often struggle with problems that compromise the trustworthiness of qualitative research findings (de Casterlé, Gastmans, Bryon, & Denier, 2012). Furthermore, we discuss that it is often difficult to evaluate the trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis studies because of defective data collection method description and/or analysis description. The findings must reflect the participants’ voice and conditions of the inquiry, and not the researcher’s biases, motivations, or perspectives (Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Polit & Beck, 2012) This is one reason why authors often present representative quotations from transcribed text (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004), particularly to show a connection between the data and results. Whittemore et al. Confirmability is the degree of neutrality in the research study’s findings. The followingprovisionsmay be made by researchers to promote conﬁdencethat they have accurately recordedthe phenomena under scrutiny: a) the adoption of research methods well established both in qualitative inves- utility of qualitative research. PERSPECTIVE ISSN: 2477-4073 ENSURING TRUSTWORTHINESS IN QUALITATIVE It has confirmability, which is largely an issue of contributed to the criticisms of bias from presentation.1 the eyes of the number of believers. Discussion of the trustworthiness of a study should be based on a defined set of criteria that are followed logically. We agree with Creswell’s (2013) comment that validation in a qualitative study is an attempt to assess the accuracy of the findings, as best described by the researcher and the participants. However, depending on the aim of the study, the collected data may be open and semi-structured. Types of qualitative sampling include convenience, purposive, theoretical, selective, within-case and snowball sampling (Creswell, 2013; Higginbottom, 2004; Polit & Beck, 2012). For example, postmodern strategies see the world in the text, and the outcome of the research directly reshapes the textual reality through language. Tarja Pölkki, PhD, is an Adjunct Professor, senior researcher and lecturer in the Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu. However, if researchers use content analysis to analyze answers to open-ended questions, they should provide an adequate description so that readers are able to readily evaluate its trustworthiness. To develop trustworthiness in qualita-tive research, Lincoln and Guba (1985) initially presented four criteria: cred-ibility, dependability, confirmability, and In this case, the results are presented to people familiar with the research topic, who then evaluate whether the results match reality. When using purposeful sampling, decisions need to be made about who or what is sampled, what form the sampling should take, and how many people or sites need to be sampled (Creswell, 2013). One study (Kyngäs et al., 2011) has suggested that data are most often analyzed by one researcher, especially when using inductive content analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. However, there is a risk that quotations may be overused, thus weakening the analysis (Downe-Wamboldt, 1992; Graneheim & Lundman, 2004, Kyngäs et. Qualitative content analysis can be used in either an inductive or a deductive way. Journal articles generally focus on the results rather than describing the content analysis process. This is not always easy to achieve with rich data sets, as encountered in nursing science. Maria Kääriäinen is Professor in University of Oulu, Institute of Health Sciences. Although many critics are reluctant to accept the trustworthiness of qualitative research, frameworks for ensuring rigour in this form of work have been in existence for many years. 120-124. Such terms are mainly rooted in a positivist conception of research. Too broad a unit of analysis will be difficult to manage and may have various meanings. } LINCOLN Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). (2011), the advantage of qualitative research is the richness of the collected data and such data need to be interpreted and coded in a valid and reliable way. However, conception may have different objectives. Yvonna Lincoln and Egon Guba coined this term to refer to one set of criteria for judging the quality or goodness of qualitative inquiry. However, the present methodological article was written by several authors who have extensive experience in using the content analysis method. Dependability refers to the stability of data over time and under different conditions. Having audit trails means having a mechanism to track the source. The purpose of trustworthiness in qualitative research is to support the argument that the inquiry’s results are “worth paying attention to”. For qualitative researchers, the methods used to establish trustworthiness include credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. … Since qualitative researchers do not use instruments with established metrics about validity and reliability, it is pertinent to address how qualitative researchers establish that the research study’s findings are credible, transferable, confirmable, and dependable. Whether this affects the trustworthiness of the results can only be speculated upon. She is in charge of the Teacher Education Program in Health Sciences. In such a case, the credibility of the analysis can be confirmed by checking for the representativeness of the data as a whole (Thomas & Magilvy, 2011). Trustworthiness is all about establishing these four things, which are described in more detail below. Information on the sample size is essential when evaluating whether the sample is appropriate. (2001) have argued that vividness involves the presentation of rich, vivid, faithful, and artful descriptions that highlight the salient themes in the data. This is essential, especially when two or more researchers are involved in the coding. In some cases, you likewise do not discover the broadcast competing paradigms in qualitative research that you are looking for. It is critical to understand rigor in research. This is referred in this article as “the Four The main purpose of this article was to discuss and highlight factors affecting trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis studies. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. The aim of trustworthiness in a qualitative inquiry is to support the argument that the inquiry’s findings are “worth paying attention to” (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Monograph research reports facilitate detailed descriptions of the analysis process and the use of figures, tables, and attachments to explain the categorization process. To manage the data, pre-testing of the analysis method is as important in qualitative as in quantitative research. Problems with reporting results can be a consequence of unsuccessful analysis (Dey, 1993; Elo & Kyngäs, 2008) or difficulties in describing the process of abstraction because it in part depends on the researcher’s insight or intuitive action, which may be difficult to describe to others (Elo & Kyngäs, 2008; Graneheim & Lundman, 2004). Researchers must ensure that those participating in research reports to ensure the trustworthiness by reporting the can! 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